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Aspects Of Earthquake Triggering And Seismicity Clustering


Aspects Of Earthquake Triggering And Seismicity Clustering
Author: Xiaowei Chen
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781303023446
Size: 19.68 MB
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Earthquakes strongly cluster in space and time, driven both by earthquake-to-earthquake triggering and underlying physical processes, such as tectonic stress loading, increased pore pressure, etc. I explore both global and regional datasets to understand characteristics of these processes in different tectonic environments. I study global seismicity using intermediate-period (35--70~s) Rayleigh waves recorded by the global seismic network. Applying a surface wave detect method identifies about 1000 previously un-cataloged earthquakes from 1997 to 2009, most of which are located in the southern ocean. I further analyze a small number of these events that are located in Antarctica to understand glacial-related triggering processes. Absolute and differential travel-times measured from waveform cross-correlation are used to obtain refined locations. A single-force model is applied to the observed amplitudes at 50~Hz to obtain best-fitting force directions. Additionally, possible glacial calving events are identified from MODIS images. The combined results suggest that events on Vanderford and Ninnis glaciers are a result of calving processes. To understand the general characteristics of earthquake clustering from a large dataset of earthquakes, I analyze seismicity in southern California. I use a high-resolution earthquake catalog based on waveform cross-correlation to study the spatial-temporal distribution of earthquakes. Parameters based on event location, magnitude and occurrence time are computed for isolated seismicity clusters. Spatial migration behavior is modeled using a weighted-least-squares method. Aftershock-like event clusters do not exhibit significant spatial migration compared with earthquake swarms. Two triggering processes are considered for swarms: slow slip and fluid diffusion, which are distinguished based on a statistical analysis of event migration. The results suggest fluid-induced seismicity is found across southern California, particularly within geothermal areas. In the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), a correlation between seismicity and fluid injection activities is seen. Spatial-temporal variations of earthquake stress drops are investigated in different regions, and a distance-dependence of stress drop from the injection source is found in the SSGF, suggesting the influence of increased pore pressure. Temporal variation of stress drops within mainshock source regions shows that foreshocks and earthquake swarms have lower stress drops than background seismicity and aftershocks. These results, combined with the spatial migration observed for some large foreshock sequences, suggests an aseismic transient process is likely involved in foreshock triggering.




Earthquake Triggering And Interaction


Aspects Of Earthquake Triggering And Seismicity Clustering
Author: Sebastian Hainzl
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 62.17 MB
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Earthquake faults interact with each other in many different ways and hence earthquakes cannot be treated as individual independent events. Although earthquake interactions generally lead to a complex evolution of the crustal stress field, it does not necessarily mean that the earthquake occurrence becomes random and completely unpredictable. In particular, the interplay between earthquakes can rather explain the occurrence of pronounced characteristics such as periods of accelerated and depressed seismicity (seismic quiescence) as well as spatiotemporal earthquake clustering (swarms and aftershock sequences). Ignoring the time-dependence of the process by looking at time-averaged values as largely done in standard procedures of seismic hazard assessment can thus lead to erroneous estimations not only of the activity level of future earthquakes but also of their spatial distribution. Therefore, it exists an urgent need for applicable time-dependent models. In my work, I aimed at better understanding and characterization of the earthquake interactions in order to improve seismic hazard estimations. For this purpose, I studied seismicity patterns on spatial scales ranging from hydraulic fracture experiments (meter to kilometer) to fault system size (hundreds of kilometers), while the temporal scale of interest varied from the immediate aftershock activity (minutes to months) to seismic cycles (tens to thousands of years). My studies revealed a number of new characteristics of fluid-induced and stress-triggered earthquake clustering as well as precursory phenomena in earthquake cycles. Data analysis of earthquake and deformation data were accompanied by statistical and physics-based model simulations which allow a better understanding of the role of structural heterogeneities, stress changes, afterslip and fluid flow. Finally, new strategies and methods have been developed and tested which help to improve seismic hazard estimations by taking the time-dependence of the earthquake process appropriately into account.




Statistical Methods And Modeling Of Seismogenesis


Aspects Of Earthquake Triggering And Seismicity Clustering
Author: Nikolaos Limnios
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1789450373
Size: 39.76 MB
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The study of earthquakes is a multidisciplinary field, an amalgam of geodynamics, mathematics, engineering and more. The overriding commonality between them all is the presence of natural randomness. Stochastic studies (probability, stochastic processes and statistics) can be of different types, for example, the black box approach (one state), the white box approach (multi-state), the simulation of different aspects, and so on. This book has the advantage of bringing together a group of international authors, known for their earthquake-specific approaches, to cover a wide array of these myriad aspects. A variety of topics are presented, including statistical nonparametric and parametric methods, a multi-state system approach, earthquake simulators, post-seismic activity models, time series Markov models with regression, scaling properties and multifractal approaches, selfcorrecting models, the linked stress release model, Markovian arrival models, Poisson-based detection techniques, change point detection techniques on seismicity models, and, finally, semi-Markov models for earthquake forecasting.




International Handbook Of Earthquake Engineering Seismology


Aspects Of Earthquake Triggering And Seismicity Clustering
Author: William H.K. Lee
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080489223
Size: 80.82 MB
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Modern scientific investigations of earthquakes began in the 1880s, and the International Association of Seismology was organized in 1901 to promote collaboration of scientists and engineers in studying earthquakes. The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, under the auspices of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI), was prepared by leading experts under a distinguished international advisory board and team of editors. The content is organized into 56 chapters and includes over 430 figures, 24 of which are in color. This large-format, comprehensive reference summarizes well-established facts, reviews relevant theories, surveys useful methods and techniques, and documents and archives basic seismic data. It will be the authoritative reference for scientists and engineers and a quick and handy reference for seismologists. Also available is The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part B. Two CD-ROMs containing additional material packaged with the text



Aspects of Earthquake Triggering and Seismicity Clustering
Language: en
Pages: 169
Authors: Xiaowei Chen
Categories:
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013 - Publisher:
Earthquakes strongly cluster in space and time, driven both by earthquake-to-earthquake triggering and underlying physical processes, such as tectonic stress loading, increased pore pressure, etc. I explore both global and regional datasets to understand characteristics of these processes in different tectonic environments. I study global seismicity using intermediate-period (35--70~s) Rayleigh
Earthquake Triggering and Interaction
Language: en
Pages: 326
Authors: Sebastian Hainzl
Categories:
Type: BOOK - Published: 2009 - Publisher:
Earthquake faults interact with each other in many different ways and hence earthquakes cannot be treated as individual independent events. Although earthquake interactions generally lead to a complex evolution of the crustal stress field, it does not necessarily mean that the earthquake occurrence becomes random and completely unpredictable. In particular,
International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology
Language: en
Pages: 1200
Authors: William H.K. Lee, Paul Jennings, Carl Kisslinger, Hiroo Kanamori
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2002-09-27 - Publisher: Elsevier
Modern scientific investigations of earthquakes began in the 1880s, and the International Association of Seismology was organized in 1901 to promote collaboration of scientists and engineers in studying earthquakes. The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, under the auspices of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the
Statistical Methods and Modeling of Seismogenesis
Language: en
Pages: 336
Authors: Nikolaos Limnios, Eleftheria Papadimitriou, George Tsaklidis
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2021-05-25 - Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The study of earthquakes is a multidisciplinary field, an amalgam of geodynamics, mathematics, engineering and more. The overriding commonality between them all is the presence of natural randomness. Stochastic studies (probability, stochastic processes and statistics) can be of different types, for example, the black box approach (one state), the white
The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting
Language: en
Pages: 512
Authors: Christopher H. Scholz
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2019-01-03 - Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A major update of this classic reference text on earthquakes and faulting with a wealth of new topics and observations.